Downward communication is the communication where information or messages flows from the top of the organizational structure from the bottom of the organizational structure. Downward communication occurs when information flows down the hierarch form superiors to subordinates. This type of communication may forms such as staff meetings, company newsletter, company policy statement, information memos, e-mail, face-to-face contact, orders, instruction etc. some important definitions of downward communications are given below:
According to Bartol along with Martin, “Downward communication is a verticla communication which streams style an increased levels to help more than one cheaper levels within the organization. ”
According to Medical professional. Urmila Rai, “Message which in turn should go in the increased authority levels to the cheaper levels is actually downward communication. ”
According to Ricky W. Griffin, “Downward communication happens any time facts streams lower the actual power structure style finer quality than subordinates. ”
According to Newstorm along with Davis, “Downward communication within an organizastion is the flow involving facts style increased in order to lower levels of authority. ”.
The graphical presentation of downward communication is as follows:
In conclusion, we can say downward communication occurs when messages flow from upper level of lower levels by following the organizational hierarchy. The objective of downward communication is to carry organizational objectives, plans, policies, and procedures form a higher level to lower levels of the organization.
Objectives of Downward Communication
It is a system of communication where communication takes place from upper level to downward or from the superior to a subordinate level. The following objectives are available in downward communication.
- Supply information: Workstyle, method, responsibility, duties, etc. are supplied to subordinates by this communication system.
- Assigning work: Through downward communication, superior assigns different works to their subordinates.
- Explaining policies and plan: The objective of an organization is to inform the institution’s plan, policy, program, etc. to a lower level by this communication system.
- Responsibility and duty: Interdepartmental duties and responsibilities are distributed by this communication system.
- Directing subordinates: Downward communication is directive in nature. To give directions to the subordinates, top executives use this communication method.
- Evaluation of performance: Top executives evaluate the performance of their subordinates through this communication method. After evaluation of worker’s works, the analyzed result is informed to others for an incentive.
- Explain the change environment: Any change or organization’s plan, policy, method and program are informed to all employees with the help of this communication system.
- Coordination and cooperation: To coordinate and cooperate with the subordinates of their works downward communication is needed. For the achievement of an expected result, downward communication is the best method.
- Delegate authority: In a large organization, it is very much essential to delegate some authority to their subordinates. Without downward communication delegation of authority is impossible.
- Establish discipline: Top-level hierarchy of the organization try to maintain organizational discipline through downward communication to their subordinates by issuing job-related rules and regulation.
Methods of Downward Communication
Both written and oral methods are used in transmitting messages of downward communication. Actually, the section of media depends on the nature, urgency and importance of the message to be communicated. The followings are the frequently used media or methods of downward communication.
- Oral Media or Method: Downward communication is mainly done by means of oral media or method. Usually, the supervisors give instructions to their subordinates through face-to-face and telephonic conversations. Besides this, managers also exchange relevant information to their subordinates through meetings, conferences, lectures etc.
- Written Media or Method: Organization of any size and nature sends important information to its employees in written forms through letters, circulars, manuals, bulletins, posters annual reports, etc. generally, letters and memos communicate important organizational directives; circulars, manuals, and bulletins communicate policies and procedures and annual report communicates organizational activities and performance at the end of the year.
- Other Media or Method: In addition to oral and written media or methods, audio, visual and audio-visual media are also used in downward communication. Radio, television, poster, signal, symbol, graphs, etc. are some of the commonly used instruments that convey messages to the subordinates.
Downward communication is that communication in which information flows form superior to subordinates. Through downward communication, managers communicate organizational goals, policies, procedures, orders, instructions, decisions, etc. to their subordinates.
In conclusion, In the process of downward communication, messages of the top executive reach to the lower levels moving through the chain of hierarchy. Downward communication can be of written or oral. Written forms of downward communication are manuals, handbooks, notices, electronic news displays, etc. whereas, face-to-face conversation, telephonic conversations, speeches, meetings, etc. are the oral media of downward communication.