What is communication process? Steps of communication process

Communication process consists of some interrelated steps or parts through which messages are sent form sender to receiver. The process of communication begins when the sender wants to transmit a fact, idea, opinion or other information to the receiver and ends with receiver’s feedback to the sender. The main components of communication process are sender, message, channel, receiver and feedback. In the following, some definitions of the communication process are quoted:

Robert Kreitner defined, “Communication process is a chain made up of identifiable links. The chain includes sender, encoding, message, receiver, decoding, and feedback.”

In the opinion of S. K. Kapur, “The communication process is the method by which the sender transfers information and understanding to the receiver.”

According to Bovee, Thill and Schatzman, “The communication process consists of six phases linking sender and receiver.”

C. B. Mamoria has pointed out the parts of communication process by saying, “That communication process model is making up of seven steps or parts: a. the communication b. Encoding c. The message and the medium or channel, d. reception by the feceiver e. decoding f. Action and g. feedback.”

The following diagram represents the communication processWhat is communication process

Thus, it is clear that communication process is the set of some sequential steps involved in transferring message as well as feedback. The process requires a sender who transmits message through a channel to the receiver. Then the receiver decodes the message and sends back some type of signal or feedback.

Steps or elements of communication process

The communication process refers to the steps through which communication takes place between the sender and the receiver. This process starts with conceptualizing an idea or message by the sender and ends with the feedback from the receiver. In details, communication process consists of the following eight steps:

  1. Developing idea by the sender: In the first step, the communicator develops or conceptualizes an idea to be sent. It is also known as the planning stage since in this stage the communicator plans the subject matter of communication.
  2. Encoding: Encoding means converting or translation the idea into a perceivable form that can be communicated to others.
  3. Developing the message: After encoding the sender gets a message that can be transmitted to the receiver. The message can be oral, written, symbolic or nonverbal. For example, when people talk, speech is the message; when people write a letter, the words and sentences are the message; when people cries, the crying is the message.
  4. Selecting the medium: Medium is the channel or means of transmitting the message to the receiver. Once the sender has encoded his into a message, the next step is to select a suitable medium for transmitting it to the receiver. The medium of communication can be speaking, writing, signaling, gesturing etc.
  5. Transmission of message: In this step, the sender actually transmits the message through chosen medium. In the communication cycle, the tasks of the sender end with the transmission of the message.
  6. Receiving the message by receiver: This stage simply involves the reception of sender’s message by the receiver. The message can be received in the form of hearing, seeing, feeling and so on.
  7. Decoding: Decoding is the receiver’s interpretation of the sender’s message. Here the receiver converts the message into thoughts and tries to analyze and understand it. Effective communication can occur only when both the sender and the receiver assign the same or similar meanings to the message.
  8. Feedback: The final step of communication process is feedback. Feedback means receiver’s response to sender’s message. It increases the effectiveness of communication. It ensures that the receiver has correctly understood the message. Feedback is the essence of two-way communication.

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  1. mubarak yusuf says:

    communications simply means is a process by sending data or information though media techenically or locally

  2. Stan Arnold says:

    I’m a professional copywriter, and I found parts of this impossible to understand. Points 2,3 and 4 need some serious clarification work. Sorry, but I’d be fired if I wrote anything as confusing as this. Still everyone else seems to get it. Maybe I should have stuck with my human cannonball act.

  3. Evans Agebakhoe says:

    Thanks so much.it has improved my understanding of the content matter..

  4. Thank you so much for this kind of summary………. It has helped me so much in my assignment

  5. Ahmed optimism says:

    Thanks you very much, this has enlight me of what communication process all about

  6. ackim peter banda says:

    Very well sumarized so helpfull

  7. THEOPHELUS says:

    Very Useful, u are a life saver

  8. omoshalewa Muritala says:

    Thank you so much it’s brief and simple

  9. lawaiza khan says:

    thanks a lot. now i m feeling good…

  10. DOMINIC says:


  11. Antonette says:

    Thanks 4 the information 🙂 i got the components of communication . Nice 🙂

  12. cleinard says:

    Thx for more communication procces.. I learned so much….

  13. Titus Milka says:

    Thanks for the knowledge i have gained, love it

  14. Rhoda Jegeda says:

    Thanks a lot, you have increased my understanding according to what communication is all about

  15. Rhoda Jegeda says:

    In short i can say communication is between two parties which is a sender and a receiver when they are transferring the information from one to another.

  16. Kamba John says:

    Thank you. I have learnt more

  17. nany milly says:

    thaxs ver much fot the communication process,my course work is nw done


    Thanks. This has enriched my book; the essence and essentials of communication. You have increased my understanding.

  19. Anuththara says:

    Thanks for the information & it’s brief & simple

  20. how many pillars do we have in communication process. kindly help me understand

  21. This is very good. thanks.

  22. David mweko says:

    i’m really contradicted by these points, they are quite different from the ones in the books

  23. thanx a lot u have made my test in communication process

  24. heamen asegid says:

    Wow,i can get it all i’ve find.thank u very much.it is briefly written paper for me.

  25. Ephraim kalyalya says:

    thanks now i can mention that stages and express on it

  26. tigabu belachew says:

    thank you !!!

  27. Give me specific example of each process please!!?

  28. zainab abubakar says:

    communcation is the process of sending and receiving information [massege]and it includes all the way and manner through which we can let other people know and share our exprience.

  29. Oestinah van Harry says:

    well said and easily understandable

  30. MASENGESHO Pascal says:


  31. ONGELE JOSEPH says:

    helpful and precise notes!

  32. Afolabi Odunola says:

    Diagram of concept of communication

  33. PHIRI VINCENT says:

    cool and grt,,,,my headache has ceased due to overwhelming assignment i had abt communication process,,,,,thanks…….

  34. DANIEL KIRIMI says:

    awesome,you have mightly helped me in research,and for that reason am very grateful.

  35. konga Harriet says:

    so great,am happy i have got to know more abt communiation process,now my course work is done,thxs alot.

  36. nitesh sen says:

    It’s good summary to understood communication thank you so much

  37. bert gordan says:

    reading this made my soil myself

  38. Communication is good to know what’s going on around you

  39. Norah nanyangwe says:

    This has been helpful… Thank you


    thank you very much,,.

  41. Finally i got it!!

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