Communication process consists of some interrelated steps or parts through which messages are sent from sender to receiver. The process of communication begins when the sender wants to transmit a fact, idea, opinion or other information to the receiver and ends with receiver’s feedback to the sender. The main components of communication process are sender, message, channel of communication, receiver and feedback. In the following paragraphs, some definitions of the communication process are quoted:
Robert Kreitner defined, “Communication process is a chain made up of identifiable links. The chain includes sender, encoding, message, receiver, decoding, and feedback.”
In the opinion of S. K. Kapur, “The communication process is the method by which the sender transfers information and understanding to the receiver.”
According to Bovee, Thill and Schatzman, “The communication process consists of six phases linking sender and receiver.”
C. B. Mamoria has pointed out the parts of communication process by saying, “That communication process model is making up of seven steps or parts: a. the communication b. Encoding c. The message and the medium or channel, d. reception by the feceiver e. decoding f. Action and g. feedback.”
The following diagram represents the communication process
Thus, it is clear that communication process is the set of some sequential steps involved in transferring messages as well as feedback to messages conveyed by the recipient. The process requires a sender who transmits message through a channel to the receiver. Then the receiver decodes the message and sends back some type of signal or feedback which could be positive feedback or otherwise. However, the model of communication differ and plays a crucial role in communication whilst promoting message transmission.
Steps of Communication Process
The communication process refers to the steps through which communication takes place between the sender and the receiver. This process starts with conceptualizing an idea or message by the sender and ends with the feedback to messages conveyed from the receiver. In details, communication process consists of the following eight steps of communication:
- Developing idea by the sender: In the first step, the communicator develops or conceptualizes an idea to be sent. It is also known as the planning stage since in this stage the communicator plans the subject matter of communication. It is the most essential components of the key components of a communication channel. It is a deliberate process that envisions what to commute and the overall goal of communication.
- Encoding: Encoding means converting or translation the idea into a perceivable form that can be communicated to others. This is sequential with the choice of communication method and communication objectives intended to use for sending the message.
- Developing the message: After encoding, the sender gets a message that can be transmitted to the receiver. The message can be an oral or verbal message, written message, symbolic or nonverbal message. For example, when people talk, speech is the message; when people write a letter, the words and sentences are the message; when people cries, the crying is the message. Whether it is a non-verbal message or verbal message or body language; the components of speech, action, and texts are the components of a clear message and effective communication. In this stage, communication skills are regarded essential for current and future communication as it determines the quality of message sent to prevent misunderstood messages.
- Selecting the medium: communication mediums are channel of communication or means of transmitting the message to the receiver. Once the sender has encoded his thoughts or ideas into a message, the next step is to select a suitable medium for transmitting it to the receiver. The medium of communication can be speaking, writing, signaling, body gestures, facial expressions, etc.
- Transmission of message: In this step, the sender actually transmits the message through chosen medium. In the communication cycle, the tasks of the sender end with the transmission of the message. This can involve the use of communication technology and other form of communication such as telephone conversation, radio message, human communication to send nonverbal messages and actionable messages to a receiver for decoding.
- Receiving the message by receiver: This stage simply involves the reception of sender’s message by the receiver. The message can be received in the form of hearing, seeing, feeling and so on. This is dependent on the choice of communication model and transmission model used by the sender.
- Decoding: Decoding is the receiver’s interpretation of the sender’s message. Here the receiver converts the message into thoughts and tries to analyze and understand it through a decoding process. Effective communication can occur only when both the sender and the receiver assign the same or similar meanings to the message. The ability to decode messages makes communication an ongoing process between communication partners.
- Feedback: The final step of communication process is feedback. Feedback means receiver’s response to sender’s message. It increases the effectiveness of communication. It ensures that the receiver has correctly understood the message. Feedback is the essence of two-way communication and can simply be regarded as the elimination of poor communication which results from a one-way communication without response.
The steps of communication mentioned above promotes interpersonal communication using unique methods of communication. This concept or model of communication describes effective business communication and private conversations across all fields of study.