There are many models of communication developed by noted theorists of different disciplines. Among the theorists; Aristotle, Lasswell, Shannon, Weaver, McLuhan, MacLean, Rileys, Westley, Gerbner, Rothstein, Schramn, Berlo, Osgood, Johnson, Cherry are the renowned ones. Some important and well-known models of communication are discussed below:
1. Aristotle’s model of communication:
Aristotle, the well known Ancient greek thinker, unveiled an operation involving oral communication within his/her creating 3 hundred years prior to the birth involving Christ. The Aristotle model of communication is regarded a worthy inside analysis involving modern-day communication interaction. He articulates of any communication practice consisting of a new loudspeaker, a message and also a listener. The Aristotelian model of communication can be as follows:
Aristotle pointed out that the person at the end of communication process plays the key role to whether or not effective communication takes place.
2. Lasswell’s model of communication:
Harold Lasswell, a political scientist, designed a communication exchanges type mixing the main elements of communication exchanges. His model became widely discussed especially during the 1940s. He or she expressed the actual type because it defines, “Who affirms exactly what, in which funnel, to be able to which, in doing what effect. ” Which means, Lasswell’s style of verbal exchanges consists of several parts – Sender (who), Message (what) in addition to receiver (whom).
Lasswell included solely the actual component of social interaction channel. The majority of modern-day theorists talk about these several areas of the actual communication procedure by employing diverse terminology. The particular Lasswell’s nature of communication can be found beneath:
3. Shannon Weaver Model of Communication:
The United States applied mathematician Claude Shannon and also Industrial engineer Warren Weaver produced a new mathematical theory regarding conversation within 1949 although working at bell Mobile phone Laboratories in the United States. Afterward his / her style has grown to be well-known as the “information theory of communication.” Shannon and Weaver’s style are commonly recognized because the course from which this kinds of communication studies started from has exploded.
Shannon along with Weaver product contains the subsequent 5 things:
- A data source, which usually yields an email
- Some sort of transmitter, which encodes the particular communication into indicators
- Some sort of sales channel; to be able to which usually indicators usually are taken for symbolic signs
- Some sort of receiver, which ‘decodes’ (reconstructs) the particular communication from the indication
- Some sort of desired destination, in which the communication occurs within the organizational structure.
In these interactive models, they indicated a sixth element, “noise” as a dysfunctional factor. The model is shown below:
Advantages of Shannon and Weaver’s model: The strengths of Shannon and Weaver’s model are:
- Generality and
Such advantages made this model attractive to several academic disciplines and in other kinds of communication including vertical communication; either upward communication or downward communication, general linear communication, and horizontal communication within the social structure.
4. Schramm model of communication:
Wilbur Osgood-Schramm, the well-known communication theorist, designed an easy devices communication model in his book “The course of action in addition to Effects involving Mass Communication.”
Within the product, Schramm found because Aristotle would, of which communication usually requires about three elements-the resource, this communication plus the desired destination. Ultimately, the original source encodes a communication, in addition, to direct that to its desired destination via some programmers, in which the message is usually obtained in addition to the code and the receiver is left to decode the message in interpersonal communication to determine its meaning. The product of the Osgood-schramm model really comes after:
5. Riley & Riley Model of Communication:
John W. Riley and Matilda White Riley, a husband and wife team of sociologists pointed out the importance of the sociological view in communication. They developed a model using social sciences phenomenon to illustrate sociological implications in communication. The model is shown below:
The model indicates the communicator (C) emerges as part of a larger pattern , who sends messages in accordance with the expectations and actions of other persons and groups within the same social structure. it is also true in the case of the receiver (R) in the communications process. In addition, both the communicator and receiver are part of an overall social system. The model clearly illustrates that communication is a two-way process.
6. Berlo’s SMCR Model of Communication:
David K. Berlo, a communication theorist and consultant developed a model named S-M-C-R model of communication in 1960 in his book “The process of communication”. Berlo pointed out the importance of the psychological view in his communication model. The four parts of Berlo’s S-M-C-R model are S = Source, M = Message, C = Channel and R = Receiver. The model is as follows:
The elements of Berlo’s model are discussed below:
Source: The first element of Berlo’s communication model is the source. All communication must come from some sources. The source might be one person, a group of people or a company. Several things determine how a source will operate in the communication process such as:
- Communication skills like abilities to think, write, draw and speak.
- Attitudes toward audience, the subject matter etc.
- Knowledge of the subject, the audience and the situation.
- Social background, education, friends, salary, popular culture etc.
Message: Message is the information, views or thoughts to be sent by the source. The source must choose the code or language for sending the message.
Channel: The channel is the method such as telegraph, newspaper, human communication, radio, letter, poster or other media through which the message will be transmitted.
Receiver: Receiver is the final element in the one-way communication process. The receiver is the audience of the message. They also give positive feedback or negative feedback to the sender in a two-way communication system.
7. Contemporary model of communication:
The modern-day style of communication features developed primarily from the early on work associated with Shannon along with Weaver along with Schramm. These experts have been related to expounding on the process of communication in a way that may be useful in most situations.
Off their work, the ultra-modern, as well as a modern-day style of communication, developed. The normal regions of a modern-day style of communication incorporate communicator, encoding, information, moderate, recipient, decoding, and suggestions along with sounds.