Written communication is the process of communication in which messages or information is exchanged or communicated within sender and receiver through written form.
On the other hand, oral communication is the process of communication in which messages or information is exchanged or communicated within sender and receiver through the word of mouth. The differences between oral and written communication are of followers:
Characteristics or preconditions or essentials of oral communication
Good oral communication must have some characteristics as follows:
- Clearness: The speech of the communicator must be clear in oral communication. Language should be easy and understandable.
- Pre-planned: Before communicating orally the speaker should take the proper plan of the subject matter of the communication. Pre-planned speech can make the communication effective.
- Conciseness: The speech of oral communication should be concise and meaningful. Short but informative speech makes the communication effective.
- Attractive: The message or the speech of the sender should be attractive. The receiver gives more attention to attractive speech.
- Realistic: The speech of oral communication must be realistic and relevant to the subject matter. Irrelevant an unnecessary speech should be avoided.
- Free form error: Another pre-condition of successful oral communication is that the message must be free from all kinds of errors. Errorless speech makes the communication fruitful.
- Consideration for the receiver: The communication should consider the receiver’s status, knowledge, educational qualification and desire. That is to say the speaker must be receiver oriented.
- Maintaining neutrality: Neutrality is a pre-condition of an oral communication both the sender’s and receiver’s point of view.
- Patience: Patience is necessary for successful oral communication both the speakers and receivers point of view.
- Other: Avoiding pre-supposition, Attractive presentation of the message, Regular practices etc.
Under what circumstances oral communication is more effective or, In between oral communication and written communication which one is more effective?
The following situations are appropriate for oral communication
- Oral explanation: Where oral explanation is necessary to exchange information, oral communication is better than those of others.
- Illiterate audience: If the audience and the receiver of the message are illiterate, written communication is not possible. Only the way to communicate with an illiterate person is oral communication.
- Lack of time: If the sender of the message wants to communicate rapidly, oral media is the best way of communication.
- Direct relations: Where the direct relation is necessary to exchange views and information, oral communication is better than written communication.
- Immediate feedback: If the message sender wants to get feedback immediately, oral communication is the best way for him.
- Maintaining secrecy: If the communicator wants to keep the information secret, oral communication can help him.
- Avoiding sluggishness: Sluggishness is the main limitation of written communication. To avoid sluggishness in exchanging information, oral communication is the best way.
- Large gathering: If the audience is large in number, it takes time to communicate through written documents. In this case oral communication is more effective.
- Others: Motivate audience, Mutual cooperation, Easy understanding, developing relation etc.