Graphic and visual aids: Graphic and visual aids are the means or methods of communicating or showing data or information through designs, slides, films or drawings or pictures. Graphic and visual aids are used specially in the production of books, magazine, reports etc. demand-supply analysis, changes in price level for a product or services are also presented through the means of visual communication-graph, chart etc.
Tabulation or tabulated data: Most commonly used method of presenting data is tabulation. Information is very often provided in the form of tables. A table is an orderly arrangement of information in rows and columns. Tables can be used for general purpose and special purpose.
A general purpose table covers a board area of information. All the ins and outs are presented in it.
Special purpose tables contain information that could be included with related information in a general purpose table.
Characteristic or features of a table: A good table contains the following characteristics: Title and sub-title, spanner heads, column heads, row heads, foot notes (if necessary), subtotal and totals, source, acknowledgement.
Advantages of a table
The important advantages of a table are as follows: Huge information can be plotted here, any type of information can be arranged here, everybody can understand it easily, it can help to prepare charts and graph, anyone can prepare and interpret it, some tabular displays can be highly inventive.
Disadvantage of a table: The important disadvantages of a table are as follows:
When a table becomes large, nobody wants to observe it; the full significance of the data is not always immediately obvious until it has been carefully studied, it is not suitable for illiterate person, it takes time to be read, there will be a lack of appropriate foot notes.
What is a bar chart?: Bar chart is one of the most important techniques to visual communication. When the information or data is plotted on a graph through bar it is called bar charts or bar-diagrams. Bar charts may be displayed vertically or horizontally. It can be made up of single or multiple bars. Everybody can understand and interpret the bar charts very easily. They are very much useful or showing comparisons.
What is line chart?: When the information is shown on a graph through line (may be a curve or a straight) it is called line chart. In constructing a line chart, you draw the information to be illustrated as a continuous line on a grid. The grid is the area where the line is displayed. It is scaled to show time changes in the x-axis and quantity changes in the y-axis.
Characteristic of line chart: The characteristics of a line chart one as follows: Line chart show the changes of information over time, the line appears on a grid and is continuous, two or more lines can appear on one chart, X-axis indicate time and y-axis indicates quantity, it is also possible to show part of a series by use of a surface chart, lines can be distinguished using dots, dashes, color etc.
Advantage of line chart: The characteristic line chart one as follows: Information over time can be shown well in line chart, everybody can understand and interpret it easily, two or more lines can be shown in one line chart, and two or more lines can be shown in one line chart, trend business cycle seasonal variation can be shown effectively in line chart.
Disadvantages of line chart: The disadvantages of line lane are as follow: If the scale of a line chart is not equal the information shown can be misinterpreted, in practical if the number of series is above seven, you cannot show all the information in one line chart.
What is pie chart?: When the information is shown through a circle, it is called a pie chart. Pie charts are often used when it is necessary to show the relationship of parts to a whole. If you use too many segments in the pie, the impact could be lost. We represent the information in the pie through percentage. In this chart shading may be used to focus special attention on a single element.
Rules of pie chart: The rules of pie chart are as follows: Consider the whole information equal to 100%, Subdivide the information according to items, Arrange the slices in descending order form largest to smallest, it is good to slice the pie at the 12 o’clock position and then to move around clockwise.
What is pictogram?: When figures of symbols are used to present the information, it is called the pictograms. A pictogram shows information represented in the form of picture or figures or symbols. The value of each figure indicates either the size or the quantity of items. Visually it is interesting and easily understood.
According to Lesikar and Flatley, “A pictograph is a bar or column chart that uses bars made of pictures. The pictures are typically drawings of the items being compared.”
What is a sales books map?: Maps can be an effective visual aid to communicate. We can consider the weather forecast maps shown on television in this respect. Location can be identified easily by maps. Maps may also be sent out to customers showing a new branch of a company. Besides you may use if to communicate quantitative as well as physical or geographic information. There are many kinds of map, such as: (a) Statistical maps (b) Quantitative maps (c) Physical or geographic maps.
Techniques to draw a map:
- Use color, shading, cross hatching to separate the area
- Place the quantities in numerical from within each geographic area
- Use symbols clip art graphics within each geographic area
- Take same scale to draw a map
- Use footnotes to indicate color, symbols clip art etc.
What is diagram?: Diagrams help to communicate visually. Diagrams may also be sent out to delegates of a conference. The location of the head office as well as branch offices can be indicated on a diagram. It is very useful to new comers.
What is flowchart?: The chart which is used to show a sequence of decisions or instructions of a process is called a flow chart. Flow charts are often used in business organization to work out the stages of writing a computer program. It is logical diagram that can help to achieve the goals effectively.
What is Gantt chart?: The chart which shows the relationship between actual work and standard work in respect of time is called a Gantt chart.
According to Shirely Taylor, “A Gantt chart is used to show the comparison between work which has been scheduled and work which has actually been accomplished in relation to time.”
What is cartogram? A cartogram is a special type of map which is used to give information about the distribution of people or things within a country or region. Things may be depicted clearly in a cartogram.
For example, you can show the density of population in China or number of 7 Star Hotels in South East Asia on a map.
What is a visual planning board?: Visual planning board’s can play a vital role to communicate non-verbally. It can be built up to show virtually any information-from a simple plan showing staff holidays to a complex plan showing activates of a firm over a year featuring a number or variables.