Medias or ways or techniques or channels of oral communication

The channels or methods or oral communication may be classified broadly in two categories non mechanical channels and mechanical channels which are described below:

A. Non mechanical channels

  • Conversation: conversation means the informal discussion among the people. When one person discusses his views, opinion to another person and exchanges their views in the presence of both then it is called face to face conversation. It also includes the face-to-face discussion on a particular issue. In this method both the information receiver and sender can exchange their views freely and fairly.
  • Interview: It suggests a meeting between two or more persons for the purpose of getting a view of each other or for knowing each other. When we normally think of an interview, we think a situation in which an employer tries to size up an applicant for a job. The employer’s aim is to know whether the applicant can be fit for service to this organization and the applicant’s aim is to find whether the job being offered by the organization can be suitable to him. Its first, the speaker asks questions to the listener and then the listener answers the question. There are three major techniques of interview. They are as follows:
    • Direct questioning
    • Non-directive interview and
    • Guided interview
  • Does speech: Speech means what the speaker says in front of the audience. It is fully audience-oriented system. Generally the political leaders, the managers, the business man or the workers’ leaders use this system sometimes. It can build tension or it can relax tension. This system is practiced in public gathering at company meetings, inauguration and seminars etc. In needs to considerable skills otherwise it is not effective.
  • Group discussion: Group discussion is a popular method of oral communication. Management arranges group discussion to take a decision on a special matter. Group discussion is very helpful to human relation, idea getting an idea development and training.
  • Formal training courses: Effective communication can be performed through formal training courses. It is a wide used technique of oral communication. Both the trainer and the trainee can exchange their views directly.
  • Meeting: Meeting means the formal group discussion about a specific predetermined topic or subject. Meeting members to get together and discuss about a problem or issue or a special matter. There are several types of meeting such as –
    • Security meeting
    • Minutes meeting
    • Social meeting
    • General meeting itself
  • Counseling: Counseling is an effective medium of oral communication. Generally it held yearly or bi-yearly. It is adopted by the higher authority for their followers.
  • Committee: Committee is an organization. The committee meeting is a popular technique of oral communication. Special decision is taken through face to face discussion of a committee meeting.
  • Special prize-giving ceremony: Sometimes the businessmen can meet with others arranging a special prize giving ceremony for the workers. In this ceremony the businessmen can exchange their views and ideas orally.
  • Conference: Conference is a kind of meeting at which participants exchange views and talk together. A conference may be held to exchange views on some problem being faced by the organization or some other issue related to it and it may even suggest a solution but the suggestions from a conference are not binding. They are more in the nature of the recommendation.
  • Lectures: Lecture is used to create an understanding of a topic or to influence behavior, attitudes of the trainee through spoken words. The lecture is telling someone about something. The method is an effective way to introduce new information or concepts to a group of learners who gathered at on place. A lecture is given to enhance the knowledge of the listener or to give him the theoretical aspect of a topic.
  • Informal communication: Informal communication is another technique to exchange information orally. It can be occurred in the playground, tea table etc. In those situations both the boss and subordinate can exchange their views informally.
  • Others: Invitation to a lunch, Brainstorming, Advisory board, Inspection of factory and office.

B. Mechanical channels

Telephone: Telephone set is an instrument that converts voice and other sound signals into a form that can be transmitted to remote locations and that receives and reconverts waves into the waves into sound signals. The telephone plays a vital role in communication when the two persons stay in different places they communicate with each other by telephone. Their exchange information and their views and immediate feedback are possible under this system. Now-a-days we can see that every organization is using the telephone to exchange the information and views orally.

  • Mobile or cell phone: A mobile phone (also known as a cellular phone, cell phone and a hand phone) is a portable telephone that connects to the telephone network over the radio wave transmission. It connects to a wireless communications network through radio wave or satellite transmissions.
  • Radio: Radio is the indirect media of oral communication. It is a one-way communication system. The receiver can only hear the message from the sender. The receiver cannot reply.
  • Television: Television is also the indirect media of oral communication. It is a one-way communication system. Here, receiver cans here the messages and side by side see the sender. The receiver cannot reply.
  • Video conference: Video conference is a kind of teleconferencing communication where people staying in different corner or locations and participate in a face-to-face group meeting or group discussion through the help of electronic video camera technology.
  • Teleconferencing: Teleconferencing is a kind of communication where people staying in different corner or locations and participate in group meetings or group discussion through electronic telephone technology.

Advantages and disadvantages of oral communication

Advantages of oral communication

Oral communication involves many advantages. In a recent survey about communication it is clear that more than 55% of the executives choose this communication. The advantages of oral communication are as follows:

  1. Time saving: When action is required to be taken immediately it is best to transmit a message orally. If the executives work load is high then they stop writhing and by oral instructions they complete their message transmission and released their work load and also it saves time.
  2. Cost savings: Cost is involved in any communication. When the communication is needed within the organization and if it and is completed in orally, it has not needed any paper, pen or stamp or computer. So it saves the money of the organization.
  3. More powerful: Speech is a more powerful means of persuasion and control. Therefore, executives often prefer to transmit messages orally.
  4. Effectiveness: With the help of variations in the tone, pitch and intensity of voice, the speaker can convey shades of meaning. This factor also contributes to the effectiveness of oral communication.
  5. Immediate feedback: The speaker can get immediate feedback on whether it is creating a favorable impression on the receiver or whether the receiver will protest or whether the receiver has receiver has clearly understood his meaning or is feeling perplexed or baffled and he can mold and adjust his message accordingly.
  6. More suitable: The employees felt more suitable when the message transmits in orally. They get an opportunity for feedback and clarification.
  7. A relationship develops: Oral communication is mostly carried out helps to promote friendly relations between the parties communicating with each other.
  8. Flexibility: By the demand of the situations, oral instructions can be changed easily and for these cases maintain the formalities are not necessary. So it is very much flexible and effective.
  9. Easiness: It is so easy method of communication. It needs little preparation to send a message. No need of pens, pencils and other writing equipment’s which are needed in written communication.
  10. Correction of errors: If any error is expressed at the time of oral communication. It was possible to rectify at that time or within a very short time.
  11. Informal communication: In oral communication, no need to maintain such formalities which are needed in written communication. So it is easy and helpful to any organization.
  12. Motivation: In oral communication system, top executives and sub ordinates staff can sit face-to-face and exchange their views directly, so sub-ordinates are motivated day by day.
  13. Special applications: Oral communication is more helpful in communicating messages to groups of people at assembly meetings etc.
  14. Maintaining secrecy: Interested parties of oral communication can maintain the secrecy of messages easily.

Disadvantages of oral communication

Oral communication contains many advantages. In spite of this, there are oral some disadvantages which are given below:

  1. No record: In oral communication, messages are difficult to record. So it is impossible to preserve the message for future.
  2. Expensive: It is also expensive media of communication. Sometimes the audience can be managed by paying T. A and D. A. On the other hand Technological devices that are used in this system are costly.
  3. Distortion of the word: If distortion of the word occurs in oral communication, then main goals of the organization may be filed.
  4. Inaccuracy: There is very possibility of inaccurate messages to reach the destination. So, the reverse result of expected plan may be occurred.
  5. Limited use: The scope of usage of oral communication is limited. It is not suitable for lengthy messages. It should be sued for short message.
  6. Probability of omitting main subject: Sometimes, main subject may be omitted to express a word for communicating. So, expected result may not be achieved.
  7. Confused speech: Sometimes the receiver fails to understand the meaning of a message due to habitual productions of the speaker.
  8. No legal validity: there is any legal validity of the oral message. As, the oral messages are not taped and kept records, so it can be denied easily if the situation goes against the speaker.
  9. Late decision: It takes time to reach a decision. At the beginning stage, sometime is killed in the discussion of any personal matters. Besides some time is also wasted for irrelevant discussion. In this way decision making is delayed.
  10. Less important: In oral communication, meaningless speech can mislead the main effects of the communication. But when the information comes out in written, we take it seriously.
  11. Lack of secrecy: In oral communication, the important and secret information may be disclosed.
  12. Defective: Oral communication is defective for company’s policy, procedure, programs, law and other important information.
  13. Creates misunderstanding: The speaker often gives message without having properly organized it earlier. So, it is possible that he may not be able to make himself properly to communicate with the receiver. As a result, misunderstanding May develops.